Bibliography for Spinning Babies OP


Bibliography for Spinning Babies 2014

The books and articles on fetal positioning and maternal positioning. Send your favorites to gail at Spinning Babies dot comm


Bibliography for Spinning Babies Workshops


Akmal, S, Kametas, N, Tsoi, E, et al. Comparison of transvaginal digital examination with intrapartum sonography to determine fetal head position before instrumental delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2003; 21:437.

Akmal, S. et al. Malpositions and malpresentations of the foetal head. Obstetrics, Gynaecology &Reproductive Medicine
Volume 19, Issue 9, September 2009, Pages 240-246 2009

Balaskas, Janet, Active Birth, Harvard Common Press. 252 pp.1992

Ballen LE, Fulcher AJ. Nurses and doulas: complementary roles to provide optimal maternity care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs.2006 Mar-Apr;35(2):304-11.


Banks, Maggie. Breech Wise. Birthspirit Books, 1998

Ben-Haroush, A, Melamed, N, Kaplan, B, Yogev, Y. Predictors of failed operative vaginal delivery: a single-center experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197:308.

Biancuzzo, Marie. How to Recognize and Rotate an Occiput Posterior Fetus  The American Journal of Nursing Vol. 93, No. 3 (Mar., 1993), pp. 38-41. 1993

Blasi I, , et al (2010). Sonographic assessment of fetal spine and head position during the first and second stages of labor for the diagnosis of persistent occiput posterior position: a pilot study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Feb;35(2):210-5.

Borell, Ulf, and Ingmar Fernstrom. “Internal Anterior Rotation of the Foetal Head; a contribution to its explanation.” Acta Obst. et Gynec. 38, 109, 1959

Browne, Alan, Carney, Desmond, Management of Malpresentations in Obstetrics. Obstetrics in General Practice. 16 May 1964 BMJ p. 1295-1298

Calais-Germain, Blandine. The Female Pelvis, Eastland Press 2003

Cheng, Yvonne W. et al. The Association Between Persistent Occiput Posterior Position and Neonatal Outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2006;107:837-844. 2006

Cheng YW, et al. The association between persistent fetal occiput posterior position and perinatal outcomes: an example of propensity score and covariate distance matching. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Mar 15;171(6):656-63.

Cheng, YW, Shaffer, BL, Caughey, AB. Associated factors and outcomes of persistent occiput posterior position: A retrospective cohort study from 1976 to 2001. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2006; 19:563.

Cheng YW, Shaffer, BL, Caughey, AB. The association between persistent occiput posterior position and neonatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 107:837.

Cheng, YW, Norwitz, ER, Caughey, AB. The relationship of fetal position and ethnicity with shoulder dystocia and birth injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195:856.

Chou, MR, Kreiser, D, Taslimi, MM, et al. Vaginal versus ultrasound examination of fetal occiput position during the second stage of labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191:521.

Coming here soon, citing for an article on  Yoga in Pregnancy and the effects on comfort, pain, and birth outcome

Courtois L, et al. Instrumental extractions using Thierry's spatulas: evaluation of the risk of perineal laceration according to occiput position in operative deliveries J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2008 May;37(3):276-82. Epub 2008 Feb 21.


Damen, I. et al. The prognostic value of asymmetric laxity of the sacroliac joints in pregnancy-related pelvic pain, Spine 27(24):2820-4.

Daviss, BA, Johnson, KC, Lalonde A.Evolving Evidence Since the Term Breech Trial: Canadian Response, European Dissent, and Potential Solutions.  J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2010 Mar;32(3):217-24. 

Desbriere R, Blanc J, Le Dû R, et al. Is maternal posturing during labor efficient in preventing persistent occiput posterior position? A randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208:60.e1-8.


El Harta V. (1995) Posterior Labor: a pain in the back. Midwifery Today, Winter 1995 No. 36

Evans, Jane Breech Birth What are my options? AIMS Publications.

Fan L, Huang X, Wang Q. The characteristics of labour course and perinatal prognosis in cases of fetal persistent occiput-transverse position and persistent occiput-posterior position Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 1997 Oct;32(10):620-2.

Fitzpatrick, M, McQuillan, K, O'Herlihy, C. Influence of persistent occiput posterior position on delivery outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 98:1027.

Fitzgerald, MP, Weber, AM, Howden, N, Cundiff GW, Brown, MB; Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. Risk factors for anal sphincter tear during vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109:29.

Floberg, J, Belfrage, P, Ohlsen, H. Influence of the pelvic outlet capacity on fetal head presentation at delivery. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1987; 66:127.

Benavides, Lorena MD,Forceps, Posterior Presentation Add to Risk of Anal Sphincter Laceration. American Urogynecologic Society and the Society for Gynecologic Surgeons. Joint Scientific Meeting: Abstract 25. Presented July 31, 2004.

Frye, Anne. Holistic Midwifery, Vol. II.. Labrys Press, (503) 255-3378.  2004

Gardberg M, Tuppurainen M.Anterior placental location predisposes for occiput posterior presentation near term. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1994 Feb;73(2):151-2.

Gardberg M, Recurrent persistent occipito-posterior position in subsequent deliveries. BJOG. 2004 Feb;111(2):170-1.

Gardberg, M, Laakkonen, E, Salevaara, M. Intrapartum sonography and persistent occiput posterior position: a study of 408 deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 91:746.

Gardberg, M., and N, Tuppurainen. Persistent Occiput Posterior Presentation—a clinical problem. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 73(1):45-47. (1994)

Gaskin, Ina May. Assisting a Vaginal Breech Birth. Video. The Farm Midwifery Service.

Geraghty, Barbara Homeopathy for Midwives,. Churchill Livingstone, 2002


Ghi T, Giunchi S, Pilu G, Youssef A, Morselli-Labate AM, Arcangeli T, Meriggiola MC, Pelusi C, Ancora G, Cocchi G, Faldella G, Pelusi G. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in apparently low risk pregnancies: Retrospective analysis of the last five years at the University of Bologna. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009 Nov 9.

Golay J, Vedam S, Sorger L. The squatting position for the second stage of labor: effects on labor and on maternal-fetal well-being. Birth. 1993;20:73 –78.

Griffin, RJ. Management of the occiput posterior. J Ky Med Assoc 1964; 62:860.

Gupta JKNikodem C. Maternal posture in labour.Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2000 Oct;92(2):273-7.

Gupta JKHofmeyr GJ. Position for women during second stage of labour.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD002006.

GuittierM.-J., Othenin-Girard V., Correcting occiput posterior position during labor: The role of maternal positionsGynécologie Obstétrique & FertilitéVol 40, Issue 4, April 2012, pp 255–260

Haeri S, Baker AM. Estimating the impact of pelvic immaturity and young maternal age on fetal malposition.Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Sep;286(3):581-4. doi: 10.1007/s00404-012-2345-z. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Hanson L. Second-stage labor care: challenges in spontaneous bearing down. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2009 Jan-Mar;23(1):31-9; quiz 40-1. Review.

Hanson L. Second-stage positioning in nurse-midwifery practices. Part 1: Position use and preferences. J Nurse Midwifery. 1998;43:320 –325.

Hart, J., Walker, A. Management of Occiput Posterior Position Journal of Midwifery & Women's HealthVolume 52, Issue 5, September 2007, Pages 508-513

Hawkins, JL, Hess, KR, Kubicek, MA, et al. A reevaluation of the association between instrument delivery and epidural analgesia. Reg Anesth 1995; 20:50.

Hofmeyr GJKulier R. Hands and knees posture in late pregnancy or labour for fetal malposition (lateral or posterior).Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD001063.

Hunter S, Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R. Hands and knees posture in late pregnancy or labour for fetal malposition (lateral or posterior). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1998, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001063. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001063.pub3 (Updated 2007)

Incerti M, et al.Variability in rate of cervical dilation in nulliparous women at term.Birth. 2011 Mar;38(1):30-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-536X.2010.00443.x. Epub 2011 Jan 4.

Kalogiannidis IMasouridou NDagklis TMasoura SGoutzioulis MPrapas YPrapas N. Previous cesarean section increases the risk for breech presentation at term pregnancy.Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010;37(1):29-32.

Kariminia, A, Chamberlain, ME, Keogh, J, Shea, A. Randomised controlled trial of effect of hands and knees posturing on incidence of occiput posterior position at birth. BMJ 2004; 328:490.

Khorsan R, Hawk C, Lisi AJ, Kizhakkeveetil A. Manipulative therapy for pregnancy and related conditions: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol surv. 2009 Jun; 64(6):416-17.

Klaus, Marshall, John Kennell and Phyllis Klaus. The Doula Book, Perseus Publishing, 2002

Labor Progress Handbook, Ruth Ancheta and Penny Simkin 2005

Larks SDWebster ALarks GG. Quantitative studies in fetal electrocardiography. 3. Comparison of breech and cephalic presentation data; endocrine basis for fetal rotation, a hypothesis.Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969 Jan 15;103(2):282-9.

Lawrence ALewis LHofmeyr GJDowswell TStyles C. Maternal positions and mobility during first stage labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD003934

Le Ray, C, Carayol, M, Jaquemin, S, et al. Is epidural analgesia a risk factor for occiput posterior or transverse positions during labour?. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005; 123:22.

Le Ray, C, Serres, P, Schmitz, T, Cabrol, D, Goffinet, F. Manual rotation in occiput posterior or transverse positions: risk factors and consequences on the cesarean delivery rate. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110:873.

Lieberman, Ellice and Karen Davidson, Aviva Lee-Parritz, and Elizabeth Shearer, Changes in Fetal Position During Labor and Their Association with Epidural Analgesia. OB & Gyn, Vol. 105, No. 5. Part 1, pp. 974-982, May 2005

Lowe, Nancy K. CNM, PhD, FACNM, FAAN. The Dystocia Epidemic in Nulliparous Women, June 12, 2005, PowerPoint Presentation, Oregon Health & Science University

Malvasi A, Stark M, Ghi T, Farine D, Guido M, Tinelli A.Intrapartum sonography for fetal head asynclitism and transverse position: sonographic signs and comparison of diagnostic performance between transvaginal and digital examination.J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 May;25(5):508-12. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2011.648234. Epub 2012 Feb 14. PMID: 22185514


Malvasi A, et al. Intrapartum sonography head transverse and asynclitic diagnosis with and without epidural analgesia initiated early during the first stage of labor.Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 May;15(5):518-23. Erratum in: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011 Dec;15(12):1428. Di Renzo, G


Malvasi A, et al. Occiput posterior position diagnosis: vaginal examination or intrapartum sonography? A clinical review.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Sep 13. [Epub ahead of print]


Neal JL, Lowe NK, Patrick TE, Cabbage LA, Corwin EJ. What is the slowest-yet-normal cervical dilation rate among nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset?J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2010 Jul-Aug;39(4):361-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2010.01154.x.

Martino, V. [Occipito-posterior fetal head position, maternal and neonatal Minerva Ginecol. 2007 Aug;59(4):459-64.

Marpeau L, [Mechanisms of the stagnation of dilatation in the active phase of labor] Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2002 Apr;30(4):282-5.

Matsuo KShimoya KUshioda NKimura T Maternal Positioning and Fetal Positioning in Utero.J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2007 Jun;33(3):279-82.

Mazouni, C, Porcu, G, Bretelle, F, et al. Risk factors for forceps delivery in nulliparous patients. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2006; 85:298.

Narendran SNagarathna RNarendran VGunasheela SNagendra HR.Efficacy of yoga on pregnancy outcome. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Apr;11(2):237-44

Nizard, J. et al. Determination of fetal head station and position during labor: a new technique that combines ultrasound and a position-tracking system American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology - April 2009 (Vol. 200, Issue 4, Pages 404.e1-404.e5, DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.10.051)

Oxorn, Harry Human Labor and Birth, 4th edition, Appleton-Century-Croft 1980

Parente, MP. The influence of an occipito-posterior malposition on the biomechanical behavior of the pelvic floor. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 May;144 Suppl 1:S166-9. 2009

Payant L, Davies B, Graham ID, Peterson WE, Clinch J.Nurses' intentions to provide continuous labor support to women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008 Jul-Aug;37(4):405-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2008.00257.x.


Peregrine, E, O'Brien, P, Jauniaux, E. Impact on delivery outcome of ultrasonographic fetal head position prior to induction of labor. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109:618.

Phillips CJ. Hands of Love: Seven Steps to the Miracle of Birth. Maryland: New Dawn Publishing, 2000: 97-134.

Phillips CJ. An effective drug-free approach to premature contractions.ICA Review 1998: Oct:76-81.

Phillips CJ. Back labor: a possible solution for a painful situation. ICAReview 1997: July/Aug:151-55.

Phillips CJ, Meyer JJ, chiropractic care, including craniosacral therapy, during pregnancy: a static-group comparison of obstetric interventions during labor and delivery. J Manipulative Physical Therapeutics 1995 Oct; 18(8):525-9.

Pistolese RA.The Webster Technique: a chiropractic technique with obstetric implications.J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2002 Jul-Aug;25(6):E1-9.

Ponkey, S. E. et al. (2003) Persistent Fetal Occiput Posterior Position: obstetric outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 101(5pt 1):915-20

Räisänen SH, et al. Lateral episiotomy protects primiparous but not multiparous women from obstetric anal sphincter rupture. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009 Oct 23.

Riethmuller D, Ramanah R, Maillet R, Schaal JP.  Vacuum extractors: description, mechanics, indications and contra-indications] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2008 Dec;37 Suppl 8:S210-21. French.

Reichman, O, Gdansky, E, Latinsky, B, et al. Digital rotation from occipito-posterior to occipito-anterior decreases the need for cesarean section. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008; 136:25.

Renfrew MJ, Hannah W, Albers L, Floyd E. Practices that minimize trauma to the genital tract in childbirth: a systematic review of the literature [review]. Birth. 1998;25:143 –160

Ridley, Renee T. Diagnosis and Intervention for Occiput Posterior Malposition Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, Neonatal Nursing, Volume 36, Number 2, pp. 135-143(9) Blackwell Publishing March/April 2007

Rost, Cecile, PT. Relieving Pelvic Pain During and After Pregnancy. Hunter House 1998, translated to English, 2007 pp145

Rouse, DJ, Owen, J, Hauth, JC. Active-phase labor arrest: oxytocin augmentation for at least 4 hours. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93:323.

Sabsamruei P, Tanprasertkul C. Intrapartum ultrasonogram for the determination of fetal occiput position and risk of cesarean section. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010 Feb;93(2):149-53.

Scholz HS, Benedicic C, Arikan MG, Haas J, Petru E. Spontaneous vaginal delivery in the birth-chair versus in the conventional dorsal position: a matched controlled comparison [in German]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2001 Sept 17;113:695 –697.

Schmitz T, Meunier E. [Interventions during labor for reducing instrumental deliveries] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2008 Dec;37 Suppl 8:S179-87. French.

Scott, Pauline. Sit Up and Take Notice, Positioning yourself for a better birth. Great Scott Publications. 2003

Senecal, J, Xiong, X, Fraser, WD; Pushing Early or Pushing Late with Epidural Study Group. Effect of fetal position on second-stage duration and labor outcome. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105:763.

Shaffer, Brian L. et al. Manual rotation of the fetal occiput: Predictors of success and delivery. Am Jour Ob & Gyn. 194(5):e7-e9, May 2006. (With success, cesarean rate 2% vs 34%)

Shaffer, Brian L. et al.  Manual rotation to reduce caesarean delivery in persistent occiput posterior or transverse position. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011 Jan;24(1):65-72. Epub 2010 Mar 30.

Shorten A, Donsante J, Shorten B. Birth position, accoucheur, and perineal outcomes: informing women about choices for vaginal birth. Birth. 2002;29:18 –27.

Silva, Alicia, M. MSPT, Preventing and Managing Back Pain During Pregnancy. Expect Fitness. 2004

Simkin, Penny, PT. The Fetal Occiput Posterior Position: State of the Science and a New Perspective BIRTH 37:1 March 2010

Sizer, AR, Nirmal, DM. Occipitoposterior position: associated factors and obstetric outcome in nulliparas. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 96:749.

Smyth RMD, Alldred SK, Markham C. Amniotomy for shortening spontaneous labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006167. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006167.pub2.

Stitely ML, Gherman RB. Labor with abnormal presentation and position. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2005 Jun;32(2):165-79.

Stremler RHodnett EPetryshen PStevens BWeston JWillan AR. Randomized controlled trial of hands-and-knees positioning for occipitoposterior position in labor.Birth. 2005 Dec;32(4):243-51.

Sutton, Jean. Let Birth Be Born Again. Birth Concepts UK. 2001

Sutton, Jean and Pauline Scott. Understanding and Teaching Optimal Fetal Positioning. 2000

Taillefer Catherine, MD, FRCSC; Dubé, Johanne MD, FRCSC Singleton Breech at Term: Two Continents, Two Approaches J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2010;32(3):238–243

Terry, R, Westcott J, OShea L, Kelly F. Postpartum Outcomes in Supine Delivery by Physicians vs Nonsupine Delivery by Midwives. J Am Osteopath Assoc April 1, 2006 vol. 106 no. 4 199-202

Tully, Gail. “Belly Mapping; Using Kicks and Wiggles to Predict Posterior Labor.” International Doula Vol No 2004

Vas J, et al (2009). Moxibustion for Bringing Babies Around to the Head-First Position Correction of nonvertex presentation with moxibustion: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009;201(3), 241-59.

Vendittelli FRivière OCrenn-Hébert CRozan MAMaria BJacquetin B; Is a breech presentation at term more frequent in women with a history of cesarean delivery?Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 May;198(5):521.e1-6. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

Vidal F, Simon C, Cristini C, Arnaud C, Parant O. Instrumental rotation for persistent fetal occiputposteriorposition: a way to decrease maternal and neonatal injury?PLoS One. 2013 Oct 18;8(10):e78124. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078124.

Wang F, Shen X, Guo X, Peng Y, Gu X; Epidural analgesia in the latent phase of labor and the risk of cesarean delivery: a five-year randomized controlled trial.Labor Analgesia Examining Group.Anesthesiology. 2009 Oct;111(4):871-80. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181b55e65.

Wylie, L. Essential Anatomy and Physiology in Maternity Care, 2nd ed.  Elsiver Limited 2005, China. p. 178 Discussion of Right Obliquity


Wu, JM, Williams, KS, Hundley, AF, Connolly, A, Visco, AG. Occiput posterior fetal head position increases the risk of anal sphincter injury in vacuum-assisted delivereies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193:525.

Yancey, MK, Zhang, J, Schweitzer, DL, et al. Epidural analgesia and fetal head malposition at vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 97:608.

Zwelling E. Overcoming the challenges: maternalmovement and positioning to facilitate labor progress. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2010 Mar-Apr;35(2):72-8; quiz 79-80. doi: 10.1097/NMC.0b013e3181caeab3. Review.