Scroll down (Read More) to see the list of articles and books contributing to the Spinning Babies view on breech position and breech birth. Click on these underlined words to begin downloading the Bibliography for Breech pdf. [Adobe Acrobat PDF - 99.22 KB] You will download the Breech Bibliography pdf. that is at the bottom of this page. Use Acrobat Reader to view this pdf. file once it is on your desktop. You can download the Adobe Acrobat Reader for free onto your computer to see this and other pdf. files.
Books on Breech.
Breech Birth, Woman Wise. Maggie Banks, 1998 Birth Spirit Books, 15 Te Awa Rd., RD 3, Hamilton, New Zealand. Order the book at BirthInternational.com
Active Breech Birth: the point of least resistance by Maggie Banks. In March 2006, [Maggie Banks] attended the 1st International Breech Birth Conference in Vancouver, Canada with midwives, medical practitioners and researchers discussing research, safety and techniques used during vaginal breech birth ... (full article in PDF format) fromBirthSpirit.
Breech Birth: What are my options by Jane Evans
Evans J., 2005 Breech Birth - What are my options? Association for Improvements in the Maternity Services, Manor Barn, Thurloxton, Taunton, Somerset, TA2 8RH
Buy at CAPERS bookstore.
From the Independent Midwives Association in the United Kingdom:
"Jane qualified as a midwife in 1976 and worked in the NHS for 20 years. She was instrumental in raising homebirth rates, introducing waterbirth and in developing a domino scheme in her local area of Hertfordshire. Jane has become renowned for her experience in breech birth, twin birth and VBAC. She has been a member of IMA since 1991."
Anne Frye's Holistic Midwifery, Volume 2 has reliable information on breech birth. Watch for Jane Evans for whatever you can find on the cardinal movements of the birthing breech baby and compare. Use Anne Frye as the foundation for your birth studies, overall.
Many of the academic articles published on breech birth in the last decade have centered around the controversary following the Term Breech Trial, also known as the Hannah Trial.
Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group.Hannah ME, Hannah WJ, Hewson SA, Hodnett ED, Saigal S, Willan AR. Lancet. 2000 Oct 21;356(9239):1375-83.
Then two years later, the Hannah group came out with a reassuring finding:
Outcomes of children at 2 years after planned cesarean birth versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the International Randomized Term Breech Trial. Whyte H, Hannah ME, Saigal S, Hannah WJ, Hewson S, Amankwah K, Cheng M, Gafni A, Guselle P, Helewa M, Hodnett ED, Hutton E, Kung R, McKay D, Ross S, Willan A; Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Sep;191(3):864-71. Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Comment in:
An excellent explanation of the weakness of the Term Breech Trial came in 2004 from physician Andrew Kotaska:
Inappropriate use of randomised trials to evaluate complex phenomena: case study of vaginal breech delivery. Andrew Kotaska, senior registrar1 BMJ 2004;329:1039-1042 (30 October), doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7473.1039 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, BC Women's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, V6H 3V5 Canada
Another rebuttal came from Dr. Marek Glezerman calling to withdraw the Hannah recommendations for universal cesarean for breech position:
Five years to the term breech trial: the rise and fall of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jan;194(1):20-5. Glezerman M. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wolfson Medical Center, The Helen Schneider Hospital for Women, Holon, Israel.
- Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec;195(6):e22; author reply e23.
- Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec;195(6):1873; author reply 1873-4.
There are more great research articles, be sure to note if the articles and information you find on the web are research-based. Then read the research. Some research doesn't support the conclusions that the researchers make at the end of their published articles. Politics are in the birthing room. I'm not exempt, either. I have my opinion, too. Then, we have to separate the outcomes claimed for breech births where mother's are on their backs, and the midwife or physician extracts the baby compared to women on hands and knees with a "hands-off-the-breech" approach. I was up putting this list on Spinning Babies as I waited for a midwife to call after her first breech catch. She and I had recently spent a day going over the Breech Update information I brought back to Minnesota after attending the Ottawa Breech conference last year. She had wanted to help the baby bend his knees, release his feet, etc. and every time she remembered me telling her, "hands off the breech, hands off the breech." Mom and baby were tucked in, nursing, while she told me the story on her drive home. Now, I've got to go to bed, too.
Vaginal or caesarean delivery? How research has turned breech birth around Royal College of Midwives-Evidence-Based Midwifery, Sept, 2008 by Mary Steen,Carol Kingdon
I like this article because it sites Mary Cronk's breech protocols at the end. Very nice. Please take Mary Cronk's life-saving instruction to heart and hand:
"Independent midwife Mary Cronk has suggested that if the labour progresses spontaneously, (that is, the contractions come often, last longer, get stronger, the cervix effaces and dilates, and the breech descends through the pelvis), the baby will be born. If this does not happen there is no place for augmentation, that is, trying to push the baby through the pelvis with contractions driven by oxytocic drugs. Nor is there any place for trying to pull breeches through the pelvis with managed breech extractions. Labours that do not progress are telling us that the baby should be born by CS (Cronk, 1998). The RCOG has recommended that a CS should be considered if there is a delay in the descent of the breech at any stage in the second stage of labour (RCOG, 2006)."
Here are the Canadian Guidelines for Breech Birth. These are from the SOGC, and may differ from the guidelines of an experienced homebirth midwife who has done many breeches. See the quote above.
Vaginal Breech Delivery Guideline; The time has come. By Andre' B. Lalonde, Executive Vice-President of the Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecololgists of Canada.
Breech Birth stories on the web (please submit your own!)
While these are lovely stories, Spinning Babies does not link to them as examples of how to catch a breech. I'm hoping for photos of a mother in a knee-elbow (hands and knees) position with no one touching the baby. If you have the right to share such photos, I'd love to link to your site/blog. If you'd give me permission to use them in a Breech Update class for midwives, I'd love that, too, but I won't expect that from you, I'll just let it be an extra blessing if it comes my way.
Later: Well, well, a little breechling blessed me. Her Mama, too! Here is the footage of a hands-off breech birth on the Spinning Babies blogspot.
Another hands-off footling breech birth this time with Lisa Barrett Australian Midwife. Give it time to load and suddenly you will see the little video screen on Lisa's blog.
BirthingWay.com Footling Breech story with photos.
Sebastian's Breech Birth. His mother said no to a version and no to a cesarean and went home to have her baby. Her skilled midwife did a hands-on breech delivery reflecting the influence of medical practice on home birth midwifery rather than the hands-and-knees, hands-off approach promoted here at Spinning Babies. Still, this a sweet birth story.
A footling breech before the midwives could arrive, the lovely story of Bruno's birth.
A happy hospital birth story of a frank breech baby in the UK. James' Breech birth.
A happy hospital birth story of a frank breech baby in the US (Denver) with mom in the OR and forceps used (perhaps as a routine gesture?). Natalie's breech birthAm J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Sep;191(3):864-71.
with pictures of Vaginal Assisted Breech Delivery. Extraction
Author: Richard Fischer, MD, Division Head, Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Section of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Cooper University Hospital, updated on their website on Jul 7, 2009.
Remember, an assisted breech delivery is a breech extraction. Compare these photos to the spontaneous movements of a breech birth in which the baby does her own cardinal movements - without "assistance."
See the preferred technique of a physician or midwife in this photo. See how he sits patiently, and not even in the same room as the laboring woman. Later, he will calmly hold his hands together while the baby emerges on her own.
Bibliography for Breech Topics 2010
Books and Video
Active Birth, Janet Balaskas, Harvard Common Press. 252 pp.1992
Breech Birth. Benna Waites Free Association Books, Great Britain, 224 pp. 2003
Breech Birth? What are my options? Jane Evans AIMS 2008
Breech Birth. Video. The Farm Midwifery Service. Ina May Gaskin
A Breech in the System DVD by Karin Ecker, http://www.abreechinthesystem.com/ 2009-2010
Breech Wise. Maggie Banks Birthspirit Books, 1998
Fearless Pregnancy, Wisdom and Reassurance from a Doctor, a Midwife and a Mom. Stuart J Fischbein, OB Fairwinds Press 2004
The Female Pelvis, Blandine Calais-Germain. Eastland Press 2003
Holistic Midwifery, Vol. II. Anne Frye. Labrys Press, (503) 255-3378. www.midwiferybooks.com 2004
Homeopathy for Midwives, Barbara Geraghty, Churchill Livingstone, 2002
Human Labor and Birth, 4th edition, Harry Oxorn, Appleton-Century-Croft 1980
Sit Up and Take Notice, Positioning yourself for a better birth. Pauline Scott. Great Scott Publications. 2003
Understanding and Teaching Optimal Fetal Positioning. Jean Sutton and Pauline Scott. 2000
Articles and Position Papers
Evans J (2012). Joining Up: The Missing Piece of the Puzzle [Breech Birth] Essentially MIDIRS 3(3): March 2012
Evans J (2012). Understanding physiological breech birth. Essentially MIDIRS 3(2):17-21.
2009 SOGC clinical practice guideline: Vaginal delivery of breech presentation: no. 226, June 2009 publ Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009 Nov;107(2):169-76.
2006 ACOG Committee Opinion No. 340. Mode of term singleton breech delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jul;108(1):235-7.
“Belly Mapping; Using Kicks and Wiggles to Predict Posterior Labor.” Gail Tully, International Doula Vol No 2004
“Breech, Posterior and a Deflexed Head! An active birth solution? Maggie Banks Midwifery Today pp 22-24, Autumn 2009
CPM2000 Study Betty-Anne Daviss, Ken Johnson, see “Outcomes of planned home births… “ below
Cluver C, Hofmeyr GJ, Gyte GM, Sinclair M. Interventions for helping to turn term breech babies to head first presentation when using external cephalic version. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;1:CD000184.
“Evolving Evidence Since the Term Breech Trial: Canadian Response, European Dissent, and Potential Solutions.” Daviss, BA, Johnson, KC, Lalonde A. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Mar;32(3):217-24. 2010 http://understandingbirthbetter.com/
“Five years to the term breech trial: The rise and fall of a randomized controlled trial” Marek Glezerman, MD Glezerman concludes that the “original term breech trial recommendations should be withdrawn.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 194, 20–5 (2006)
“Inappropriate use of randomised trials to evaluate complex phenomena: case study of vaginal breech delivery” Andrew Kotaska, MD BMJ (2004)
“Is planned vaginal delivery for breech presentation at term still an option? Results of an observational prospective survey in France and Belgium.” Goffinet F,Carayol M,Foidart JM,Alexander S,Uzan S,Subtil D,Breart G;PREMODA Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 194(4):1002-11. Apr 2006
“Outcomes of planned home births with certified professional midwives: large prospective study in North America” Kenneth C Johnson Betty-Anne Daviss, BMJ 2005; 330 : 1416 doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7505.1416 (Published 16 June 2005)
“Physician- and midwife-attended home births Effects of breech, twin, and post-dates outcome data on mortality rates” Lewis Mehl-Madrona MD, PhD Journal of Nurse-Midwifery Volume 42, Issue 2, March-April 1997, Pages 91-98
“Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomized multicentre trial.” Mary Hannah et al, for the Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. The Lancet Vol. 356 October 21, 2000
“Pregnancy, Breech Delivery” Andrew D Jenis, MD, Medscape Updated: Oct 26, 2009 Cites a 7% breech rate at 37-40 wks link: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/797690-overview
“Mothers' views of their childbirth experience two years after term breech delivery” J. F. M. Molkenboer et al. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008, Vol. 29, No. 1 : Pages 39-44
“Moxibustion for Bringing Babies Around to the Head-First Position Vas J, Aranda JM, Nishishinya B, et al. Correction of nonvertex presentation with moxibustion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009;201(3), 241-59.
“The Safety of Homebirth: The Farm Study” Mark Durand, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, 450-452 March 1992
http://www.UnderstandingBirthBetter.com Betty-Anne Daviss and Ken Johnson
http://www.StandandDeliver Rixa Freeze’s blog
http://www.aims.org.uk/Journal/Vol10No3/handOffbreech.htm Mary Cronk’s “Hands Off” article at AIMS.org.uk