Research & References

Ahmad, A., et al. “Association between fetal position at onset of labor and mode of delivery: a prospective cohort study.” Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 43.2 (2014): 176-182. [Gail’s note:  Remember, LOA isn’t the sole optimal position! and this study shows that but doesn’t know the rest of the story!]

Akmal, S., N. Kametas, E. Tsoi, and Et Al. “Comparison of Transvaginal Digital Examination with Intrapartum Sonography to Determine Fetal Head Position before Instrumental Delivery.” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 21 (2003): 437. Print.

Akmal, S., and Et Al. “Malpositions and Malpresentations of the Foetal Head.” Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine September 19.9 (2009): 240-46. Print.

Andrews, Christine. “Considering Non-Optimal Fetal Positioning and Pelvic Girdle Positioning and Pelvic Girdle Dysfunction in Pregnancy: Increasing the Available Space.” Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics 11.2 (2010): 783-88. Print.

Balaskas, Janet. Active Birth. N.p.: Harvard Common, 1992. Print.

Banks, Maggie. Breech Birth: Woman-wise. Hamilton, N.Z.: Birthspirit, 1998. Print.

Ben-Haroush, Avi, Nir Melamed, Boris Kaplan, and Yariv Yogev. “Predictors of Failed Operative Vaginal Delivery; a Single-center Experience.”American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 197 (2007): 308. Print.

Benavides, Laura. “Forceps, Posterior Presentation Add to Risk of Anal Sphincter Laceration.” American Urogynecologic Society and the Society for Gynecologic Surgeons. Joint Scientific Meeting Abstract 25 (2004): n. pag. Print.

Biancuzzo, Marie. “How to Recognize and Rotate an Occiput Posterior Fetus.” The American Journal of Nursing March 93.3 (1993): 38-41. Web.

Blasi, I., R. D’amico, V. Fenu, A. Volpe, I. Fuchs, W. Henrich, and V. Mazza. “Sonographic Assessment of Fetal Spine and Head Position during the First and Second Stages of Labor for the Diagnosis of Persistent Occiput Posterior Position: A Pilot Study.” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 35.2 (2010): 210-15. Web.

Borrell, Ulf, Fernstrom, Ingmar. “Internal Anterior Rotation of the Foetal Head; a Contribution to Its Explanation.” Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 38 (1959): 109. Print.

Browne, A. D. H., and D. Carney. “Management of Malpresentations in Obstetrics.” Bmj 1.5393 (1964): 1295-298. Web.

Burke, Louis, Harold W. Rubin, and Arnold L. Berenberg. “The Significance of the Unengaged Vertex in a Nullipara at Thirty Eight Weeks’ Gestation.” Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 13.6 (1958): 820-21. Web.

Calais-Germain, Blandine. The Female Pelvis: Anatomy & Exercises. Seattle, WA: Eastland, 2003. Print.

Chan, Ssc, Ryk Cheung, Kw Yiu, Ll Lee, Ty Leung, and Tkh Chung. “Pelvic Floor Biometry during a First Singleton Pregnancy and the Relationship with Symptoms of Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Prospective Observational Study.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 121.1 (2014): 121-29. Web.

Chen, Luyun, Rajeev Ramanah, Yvonne Hsu, James A. Ashton-Miller, and John O. L. Delancey. “Cardinal and Deep Uterosacral Ligament Lines of Action: MRI Based 3D Technique Development and Preliminary Findings in Normal Women.” International Urogynecology Journal 24.1 (2013): 37-45. Web.

Cheng, Y. W., A. Hubbard, A. B. Caughey, and I. B. Tager. “The Association Between Persistent Fetal Occiput Posterior Position and Perinatal Outcomes: An Example of Propensity Score and Covariate Distance Matching.” American Journal of Epidemiology 171.6 (2010): 656-63. Web.

Cheng, Yvonne W., Brian L. Shaffer, and Aaron B. Caughey. “Associated Factors and Outcomes of Persistent Occiput Posterior Position: A Retrospective Cohort Study from 1976 to 2001.” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 19.9 (2006): 563-68. Web.

Cheng, Yvonne W., Brian L. Shaffer, and Aaron B. Caughey. “The Association Between Persistent Occiput Posterior Position and Neonatal Outcomes.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 107.4 (2006): 837-44. Web.

Cheng, Yvonne W., Errol R. Norwitz, and Aaron B. Caughey. “The Relationship of Fetal Position and Ethnicity with Shoulder Dystocia and Birth Injury.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 195.3 (2006): 856-62. Web.

Chou, Margaret R., Doron Kreiser, M.mark Taslimi, Maurice L. Druzin, and Yasser Y. El-Sayed. “Vaginal versus Ultrasound Examination of Fetal Occiput Position during the Second Stage of Labor.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 191.2 (2004): 521-24. Web.

Cohen, Susanna R., and Celeste R. Thomas. “Rebozo Technique for Fetal Malposition in Labor.” Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health 60.4 (2015): 445-451.

Courtois, L., P. Belcher, D. Maticot-Baptista, D. Cour, B. Zurlinden, and Et Al. “Instrumental Extractions Using Thierry’s Spatulas: Evaluation of the Risk of Perineal Laceration According to Occiput Position in Operative Deliveries.” J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) May 37.3 (2008): 276-82. Web. Epub 2008 Feb 21

“Dr. Coale’s Treatise on Uterine Displacements.” The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 47.6 (1852): 109-15. Web.

Damen, Léonie, H. Muzaffer Buyruk, Füsun Güler-Uysal, Frederik K. Lotgering, Chris J. Snijders, and Hendrik J. Stam. “The Prognostic Value of Asymmetric Laxity of the Sacroiliac Joints in Pregnancy-Related Pelvic Pain.” Spine 27.24 (2002): 2820-824. Web.

Daviss, BA, KC Johnson, and A. Lalonde. “Evolving Evidence since the Term Breech Trial: Canadian Response, European Dissent, and Potential Solutions.” J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Canada) March 32.3 (2010): 217-24. Print.

Desbriere, Raoul, Julie Blanc, Renaud Le Dû, Jean-Paul Renner, Xavier Carcopino, Anderson Loundou, and Claude D’ercole. “Is Maternal Posturing during Labor Efficient in Preventing Persistent Occiput Posterior Position? A Randomized Controlled Trial.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 208.1 (2013): 60.e1-0.e8. Web.

Dimassi, Kaouther, Anissa Ben Amor, Cyrine Belghith, and Et Al. “Ultrasound Diagnosis of Fetal Head Engagement.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics (2014): n. pag. Web.

El Harta, Valerie. “Posterior Labor: A Pain in the Back.” Midwifery Today Winter.36 (1995): 19-21. Web.

Evans, Jane. Breech Birth: What Are My Options? London: Association for Improvements in the Maternity Services, 2005. Print.

Fan, L., X. Huang, and Q. Wang. “The Characteristics of Labour Course and Perinatal Prognosis in Cases of Fetal Persistent Occiput-transverse Position and Persistent Occiput-posterior Position.” Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 32.10 (1997): 620-22. Web.

Fitzpatrick, M. “Influence of Persistent Occiput Posterior Position on Delivery Outcome.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 98.6 (2001): 1027-031. Web.

Fitzgerald, MP, AM Weber, M. Howden, GW Cundiff, and MB Brown. “Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. Risk Factors for Anal Sphincter Tear during Vaginal Delivery.” Obstetrics and Gynecology 109.1 (2007): 29-34. Web.

Floberg, Jan, Patrick Belfrage, and Hans Ohlsén. “Influence of the Pelvic Outlet Capacity on Fetal Head Presentation at Delivery.” Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 66.2 (1987): 127-30. Web.

Frye, Anne. Holistic Midwifery: A Comprehensive Textbook for Midwives in Homebirth Practice. Vol. 2. Portland, Or.: Labrys, 2013. Print.

Gardberg, Mikael, and Marketta Tuppurainen. “Anterior Placental Location Predisposes for Occiput Posterior Presentation near Term.” Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 73.2 (1994): 151-52. Web.

Gardberg, Mikael, Olga Stenwall, and Eero Laakkonen. “Recurrent Persistent Occipito-posterior Position in Subsequent Deliveries.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 111.2 (2004): 170-71. Web.

Gardberg, M. “Intrapartum Sonography and Persistent Occiput Posterior Position: A Study of 408 Deliveries.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 91.5 (1998): 746-49. Web.

Gardberg, Mikael, and Marketta Tuppurainen. “Persistent Occiput Posterior Presentation-a Clinical Problem.” Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 73.1 (1994): 45-47. Web.

Assisting a Vaginal Breech Birth. Perf. Ina May Gaskin. The Farm Midwifery Service, n.d. DVD.

Geraghty, Barbara. Homeopathy for Midwives. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2002. Print.

Ghi, Tullio, Susanna Giunchi, Gianluigi Pilu, Aly Youssef, Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate, Tiziana Arcangeli, Maria Cristina Meriggiola, Carla Pelusi, Gina Ancora, Guido Cocchi, Giacomo Faldella, and Giuseppe Pelusi. “Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy in Apparently Low Risk Pregnancies: Retrospective Analysis of the Last Five Years at the University of Bologna.” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 23.6 (2010): 516-21. Web.

Gordon, S., and S. Silverthorne. “Pre-Eclampsia and the Impact on Chiropractic Management of the Pregnant Patient.” Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics 13.2 (2012): 1032-036. Web.

Gregory, K., and R. Rowell. “Chiropractic Care for Postpartum Pelvic Girdle Pain and Low Back Pain: A Case Report.” Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics 12.2 (2011): 910-14. Web.

Griffin, RJ. “Management of the Occiput Posterior.” Kentucky Medical Association 62 (1964): 860. Print.

Gupta, Janesh K., and Cheryl Nikodem. “Maternal Posture in Labour.”European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 92.2 (2000): 273-77. Web.

Gupta, JK, and GJ Hofmeyr. “Position for Women during Second Stage of Labour.” :CD002006 1 (2004): n. pag. Cochrane Database. Web.

Hanson L.”Second-stage labor care: Challenges in Spontaneous Bearing Down.Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing.  Jan-Mar;23(2009):31-9; quiz 40-1. Review.

Hart, J., and A. Walker. “Management of Occiput Posterior Position.” Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health 52.5 (2007): 508-13. Web.

Hawkins, JL, KR Hess, MA Kubicek, and Et Al. “A Reevaluation of the Association Between Instrument Delivery and Epidural Analgesia.” Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 20.50 (1995): n. pag. Web.

Hofmeyr, G.J., and R. Kulier. “Hands and Knees Posture in Late Pregnancy or Labour for Fetal Malposition (Lateral or Posterior).” Birth 32.3 (2005): 235-36. Web.

Hunter, S., G.J. Hofmeyr, and R. Kulier. “Hands and Knees Posture in Late Pregnancy or Labour for Fetal Malposition (lateral or Posterior).” 2 (1998): n. pag. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Web.

Jordan, Brigitte. Birth in four cultures: A crosscultural investigation of childbirth in Yucatan, Holland, Sweden, and the United States. Waveland Press, 1992.

Kalogiannidis, I., N. Masouridou, T. Dagklis, S. Masoura, M. Goutzioulis, Y. Prapas, and N Prapas. “Previous Cesarean Section Increases the Risk for Breech Presentation at Term Pregnancy.” Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology 37.1 (2010): 29-32. Print.

Kariminia, A. “Randomised Controlled Trial of Effect of Hands and Knees Posturing on Incidence of Occiput Posterior Position at Birth.” Bmj 328.7438 (2004): 490. Web.

Khorsan, R., C. Hawk, AJ Lisi, and A. Kizhakkeveetil. “Manipulative Therapy for Pregnancy and Related Conditions: A Systematic Review.” Obstetric and Gynecological Survey 6th ser. June.64 (2009): 416-17. Web.

Klaus, Marshall H., John H. Kennell, Phyllis H. Klaus, and Marshall H. Klaus. The Doula Book: How a Trained Labor Companion Can Help You Have a Shorter, Easier, and Healthier Birth. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub., 2002. Print.

Klein, Theresa J., and M. Anthony Lewis. “A Physical model of Sensorimotor Interactions During Locomotion.” Journal of Neural Engineering 9.4 (2012). Web.

Lepage, J., et al. “Biomechanical Pregnant Pelvic System Model and Numerical Simulation of Childbirth: Impact of Delivery on the Uterosacral Ligaments, Preliminary Results.” International Urogynecology Journal September.17 (2014): n. pag. Print.

LeRay, Camille, Pauline Serres, Thomas Schmitz, Dominique Cabrol, and Francois Goffinet. “Manual Rotation in Occiput Posterior or Transverse Positions; Risk Factors and Consequences on the Cesarean Delivery Rate.” Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey 63.2 (2008): 83-84. Web.

LeRay, Camille, Marion Carayol, Sébastien Jaquemin, Alexandre Mignon, Dominique Cabrol, and François Goffinet. “Is Epidural Analgesia a Risk Factor for Occiput Posterior or Transverse Positions during Labour?” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 123.1 (2005): 22-26. Web.

Lieberman, Ellice, Karen Davidson, Aviva Lee-Parritz, and Elizabeth Shearer. “Changes in Fetal Position During Labor and Their Association With Epidural Analgesia.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 105.5, Part 1 (2005): 974-82. Web.

Lim, Kyoung-Il, Hyung-Chun Nam, and Kyoung-Sim Jung. “Effects on Hamstring Muscle Extensibility, Muscle Activity, and Balance of Different Stretching Techniques.” Journal of Physical Therapy Science 26.2 (2014): 209. Web.

Lowe, Nancy K. CNM, PhD, FACNM, FAAN. “The Dystocia Epidemic in Nulliparous Women.” June 12, 2005, PowerPoint Presentation, Oregon Health & Science University.

Magid, Bernard, and Charles F. Gillespie. “Face and Brow Presentations.”Obstetrics and Gynecology 9.4 (1957): 450-57. Print.

Malvasi, Antonio. “Asynclitism: Clinical and Intrapartum Diagnosis in Labor/Occiput Posterior Position and Intrapartum Sonography.”Intrapartum Ultrasonography for Labor Management. Heidelberg: Springer, 2012. 61-86. Print.

Martino, V. “Occipito-posterior Fetal Head Position, Maternal and Neonatal.” Minerva Ginecologica Journal 4th ser. August.59 (2007): 459-64. Web.

Marpeau, L. “Mechanisms of the Stagnation of Dilatation in the Active Phase of Labor.” Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité 4th ser. April.30 (2002): 282-85. Web.

Matsuo, Koji, Koichiro Shimoya, Norichika Ushioda, and Tadashi Kimura. “Maternal Positioning and Fetal Positioning in Utero.” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 33.3 (2007): 279-82. Web.

Mazouni, Chafika, Géraldine Porcu, Florence Bretelle, Anderson Loundou, Hélène Heckenroth, and Marc Gamerre. “Risk Factors for Forceps Delivery in Nulliparous Patients.” Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 85.3 (2006): 298-301. Web.

Narendran, Shamanthakamani, Raghuram Nagarathna, Vivek Narendran, Sulochana Gunasheela, and Hongasandra Rama Rao Nagendra. “Efficacy of Yoga on Pregnancy Outcome.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 11.2 (2005): 237-44. Web.

Newton, E. “Epidural Analgesia and Uterine Function.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 85.5 (1995): 749-55. Web.

Nizard, Jacky, Shoshana Haberman, Yoav Paltieli, Ron Gonen, Gonen Ohel, Yannick Le Bourthe, and Yves Ville. “Determination of Fetal Head Station and Position during Labor: A New Technique That Combines Ultrasound and a Position-tracking System.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 200.4 (2009): 404.e1-04.e5. Web.

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Parente, M., R. Natal Jorge, A. Fernandes, and T. Mascarenhas. “P266 Study on the Influence of an Occipito-posterior Malposition on the Biomechanical Behavior of the Pelvic Floor.” International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 107 (2009): S488. Web.

Peregrine, Elisabeth, Patrick O’Brien, and Eric Jauniaux. “Impact on Delivery Outcome of Ultrasonographic Fetal Head Position Prior to Induction of Labor.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 109.3 (2007): 618-25. Web.

Phillips, Carol J. Hands of Love: Seven Steps to the Miracle of Birth. St. Paul, MN: New Dawn Pub., 2001. 97-134. Print.

Phillips, C. J. “An Effective Drug-free Approach to Premature Contractions.” International Chiropractor’s Association Review October (1998): 76-81. Web.

Phillips, C. J. “Back Labor: A Possible Solution for a Painful Situation.” International Chiropractor’s Association Review Jul/Aug (1997): 151-55. Web.

Phillips, C. J., and J. J. Meyer. “Chiropractic Care, including Craniosacral Therapy, during Pregnancy: A Static-group Comparison of Obstetric Interventions during Labor and Delivery.” Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics 8th ser. October.18 (1995): 525-29. Web.

Phillips, C. “Musculoskeletal and Radicular Pain during Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery: The Concurrent Use of Spinal Manipulative Therapy (SMT), Craniosacral Therapy (CST) and Dynamic Body Balancing Techniques (DBB): Five Case Reports.” Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics 11.2 (n.d.): 797-98. Print.

Phipps, Hala, Brad De Vries, Ujvala Jagadish, and Jon Hyett. “Management of Occiput Posterior Position in the Second Stage of Labor: A Survey of Midwifery Practice in Australia.” Birth 41.1 (2014): 64-69. Web.

Pistolese, Richard A. “The Webster Technique: A Chiropractic Technique with Obstetric Implications.” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 25.6 (2002): 1-9. Web.

Ponkey, S. “Persistent Fetal Occiput Posterior Position: Obstetric Outcomes.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 101.5 (2003): 915-20. Web.

Rabischong, Pierre. Comprehensive Anatomy of Motor Functions. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014. Print.

Räisänen, Sari Helena, Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Mika Gissler, and Seppo Heinonen. “Lateral Episiotomy Protects Primiparous but Not Multiparous Women from Obstetric Anal Sphincter Rupture.” Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 88.12 (2009): 1365-372. Web.

Riethmuller, D., R. Ramanah, R. Maillet, and J. P. Schaal. “Vacuum Extractors: Description, Mechanics, Indications and Contra-indications.” J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) December.37 (2008): n. pag. Web. French

Reichman, Orna, Efraim Gdansky, Boris Latinsky, Sylvie Labi, and Arnon Samueloff. “Digital Rotation from Occipito-posterior to Occipito-anterior Decreases the Need for Cesarean Section.” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 136.1 (2008): 25-28. Web.

Ridley, Renee T. “Diagnosis and Intervention for Occiput Posterior Malposition.” Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing 36.2 (2007): 135-43. Web.

Röst, Cecile C. M., and Christine Buttinger. Relieving Pelvic Pain during and after Pregnancy: How Women Can Heal Chronic Pelvic Instability. Alameda, CA: Hunter House, 2007. Print.

Rouse, D. “Active-phase Labor Arrest: Oxytocin Augmentation for at Least 4 Hours.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 93.3 (1999): 323-28. Web.

Roy, A. M. ” Pelvic Muscle Floor Training in a Case of Postpartum Urinary Incontinence:.” Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics 13.2 (n.d.): 1017-024. Print.

Sabsamruei, P., and C. Tanprasertkul. “Intrapartum Ultrasonogram for the Determination of Fetal Occiput Position and Risk of Cesarean Section.” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand February.2 (2010): 149-53. Web.

Scott, Pauline. Sit up and Take Notice!: Positioning Yourself for a Better Birth. Tauranga, N.Z.: Great Scott Publications, 2003. Print.

Senecal, J., X. Xiong, and W. D. Fraser. “Pushing Early or Pushing Late with Epidural Study Group. Effect of Fetal Position on Second-stage Duration and Labor Outcome.” Obstetrics and Gynecology 105 (2005): 763. Web.

Shaffer, Brian L., Yvonne W. Cheng, Juan E. Vargas, Russell K. Laros, and Aaron B. Caughey. “Manual Rotation of the Fetal Occiput: Predictors of Success and Delivery.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 194.5 (2006): E7-E9. Web.

Shaffer, Brian L., Yvonne W. Cheng, Juan E. Vargas, and Aaron B. Caughey. “Manual Rotation to Reduce Caesarean Delivery in Persistent Occiput Posterior or Transverse Position.” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine 24.1 (2011): 65-72. Web.

Silva, Alicia M. Preventing and Managing Back Pain during Pregnancy. Norwood, MA: Expect Fitness, 2004. Print.

Simkin, Penny. “The Fetal Occiput Posterior Position: State of the Science and a New Perspective.” Birth 37.1 (2010): 61-71. Web.

Simkin, Penny, Ruth Ancheta, and Suzy Myers. The Labor Progress Handbook: Early Interventions to Prevent and Treat Dystocia. Oxford: Blackwell Pub., 2005. Print.

Sizer, A. “Occipitoposterior Position: Associated Factors and Obstetric Outcome in Nulliparas.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 96.5 (2000): 749-52. Web.

Smallwood, Carolyn R., Connie J. Borgerding, Michele S. Cox, and Murray R. Berkowitz. “Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) during Labor Facilitates a Natural, Drug-free Childbirth for a Primigravida Patient: A Case Report.” International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine 16.3 (2013): 170-77. Web.

Smyth, R., S. K. Alldred, and C. Markham. “Amniotomy for Shortening Spontaneous Labour.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 111.1 (2008): 204-05. Web.

Stitely, Michael L., and Robert B. Gherman. “Labor with Abnormal Presentation and Position.” Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 32.2 (2005): 165-79. Web.

Stremler, Robyn, Ellen Hodnett, Patricia Petryshen, Bonnie Stevens, Julie Weston, and Andrew R. Willan. “Randomized Controlled Trial of Hands-and-Knees Positioning for Occipitoposterior Position in Labor.” Birth 32.4 (2005): 243-51. Web.

Sutton, Jean. Let Birth Be Born Again!: Rediscovering & Reclaiming Our Midwifery Heritage. Bedfont, Middx., UK: Birth Concepts UK, 2001. Print.

Sutton, Jean, and Pauline Scott. Understanding and Teaching Optimal Foetal Positioning. Tauranga, N.Z.: Birth Concepts, 2000. Print.

Taillefer, Catherine, MD, and Johanne Dubé, MD. “Singleton Breech at Term: Two Continents, Two Approaches.” J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Canada) 32.3 (2010): 238-43. Web.

Tsen, Lawrence C., MD, Brad Thue, MD, Sanjay Datta, MD, and Scott Segal, MD. “Is Combined Spinal–Epidural Analgesia Associated with More Rapid Cervical Dilation in Nulliparous Patients When Compared with Conventional Epidural Analgesia?” Anesthesiology 91.4 (1999): 920. Web.

Tully, Gail. “Belly Mapping; Using Kicks and Wiggles to Predict Posterior Labor.” International Doula Fall 2004: Volume 12-Issue 4. Web.

Vas, J. “Moxibustion for Bringing Babies Around to the Head-First Position Correction of Nonvertex Presentation with Moxibustion: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 201.3 (2009): 241-59. Print.

Vendittelli, Françoise, Olivier Rivière, Catherine Crenn-Hébert, Marc-Alain Rozan, Bernard Maria, and Bernard Jacquetin. “Is a Breech Presentation at Term More Frequent in Women with a History of Cesarean Delivery?” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 198.5 (2008): 521.e1-21.e6. Web.

Wah, Yi Man, and Et Al. “Intra-and Inter-Observer Reproducibility of Ultrasound Measurements of Pelvic Inlet Diameter in Pregnant Women.” Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2014): n. pag. Web.

Wu, Jennifer M., Kathryn S. Williams, Andrew F. Hundley, Annamarie Connolly, and Anthony G. Visco. “Occiput Posterior Fetal Head Position Increases the Risk of Anal Sphincter Injury in Vacuum-assisted Deliveries.” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 193.2 (2005): 525-28. Web.

Yancey, M. “Epidural Analgesia and Fetal Head Malposition at Vaginal Delivery.” Obstetrics & Gynecology 97.4 (2001): 608-12. Web.

This list of references was made with the wonderful help of Chris McBride, doula and Spinning Babies enthusiast.